How do environmental chamber work?

environmental test chamber

What is an environmental chamber used for?

An environmental chamber is an enclosed space in which various environmental conditions such as heat and humidity can be controlled. Some chambers even account for corrosion through the introduction of salt spray into the chamber.


The size of these chambers can vary widely depending on the product that needs to be tested. Sizes can vary from a cubic foot to up to 12,000 cubic feet, which is large enough to drive a truck into!


What is an environmental chamber used for? The main function of environmental test chamber is to see how products handle operating in various environments. For instance, a car that runs very well in dry climates may stop working in humid environments.


Environmental chambers allow product manufacturers to test their products under a wide range of controlled conditions without having to physically travel all over the world. Environmental chambers that have been properly calibrated can generate reliable results that reflect real-world product performance.

environmental test chamberCheck differents Environmetal chambers here

So how do environmental test chambers work? The environmental chamber working principle is that all conditions can be controlled manually through a variety of mechanical processes. Temperature is controlled via electric resistor to either heat or refrigeration unit to cool the chamber.


To simulate the corrosive effect of living close to the sea, a salt solution is sprayed through a nozzle into the chamber, creating a fine mist that coats the entire product. Humidity in the test chamber can be simulate by two different methods: evaporation of water with a heat source or with ultrasound technology.


Water vapor is usually introduced into a test chamber via a steam generator which heats the water and creates steam. This steam rises to the top of the chamber, where it is cooled down again, raising the total humidity in the test chamber. This method is useful because it can generate high humidity in large chambers very quickly. The drawbacks are that it’s a very energy intensive process that can also affect the temperature inside the test chamber.


Ultrasonic humidifiers don’t rely on heat to turn water into steam. Water vapor is created by running water on a diaphragm that vibrates at ultrasonic frequencies. The droplets formed by this method are extremely thin and can evaporate rapidly in the air in the test chamber. This humidified air is then transferred to the test chamber. This system used in the FDM test chambers is more efficient than heating system.

The main advantages of ultrasound system are:

– Greater performance in humidity producing
– Increased energy efficiency
Silent system during operation
Cold operation, so it does not produce further heat
Immediate production of humidity


To ensure that the tests of products are accurate, manufacturers must know how to how to calibrate environmental chambers. Proper calibration of test chambers is essential to reliable and consistent results. Various environmental chambers will have different calibration processes, depending on how the environmental chambers work and what industry the chamber is being used in, so it’s vital to contact the manufacturer of the chamber to find out what the correct procedure is before starting the calibration process.


Receiving Free guide about FDM Calibration

How to grow Arabidopsis thaliana


Growing Arabidopsis plant is highly influenced by climatic conditions but with some pro tips and the correct controlled conditions, you can get awesome results. Read on to find out the best method to grow Arabidopsis thaliana.

What is Arabidopsis thaliana plant?

Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have the genome sequenced because it is a rare case of a small one of approximately Mbp (Megabase pairs). Other than that, Arabidopsis thaliana is a small plant with white flowers that is native to the Eurasia zone.


Arabidopsis growth

The Arabidopsis can be grown in a wide variety of mediums like greenhouses, growth chambers and rooms, outdoors and in lighted shelves. If the growth method is properly applied and the maintenance plan is carefully followed, it enables the plant to produce seeds at a high rate. Also, it is considered a requisite for reproducible and accurate research.

Arabidopsis plant growth conditions

After three to five days of being planted, the seeds of most lines germinate. In a continuous lighting, water and nutrition and an approximate temperature level of 23°C, the first flowers can be expected within four to five weeks and seed harvesting in eight to ten weeks.

It is expected that environmental conditions in natural habitats create different phenotypes than in recreated ambient situations. It is important to bear this in mind when studying differences between them.

Specific light

There are various ways to assist the Arabidopsis in its growth from a photoperiod point of view.  The most recommended intensity is 120-150 µmol/m2sec. Although it can take more power, they might start to show purple leaves as a sign of too much light as one of the determining stress conditions that can lead to death.

Optimum temperature

The optimum temperature for the Arabidopsis to grow at its best is 22-23°C. It is not recommended to exceed the temperature range for Arabidopsis nor should temperatures dip below 16°C, especially in the early stages of growth. Older plants, which have passed the Rosette stage are able to withstand heat better than younger plants. At lower temperatures the plants are known to enter a vegetative state which delays flowering. Certain winter-annual variations of the plant, however, do require a period of cold in order to initiate the flowering process. Many of the young rosettes usually aged between 2 and 4 weeks, of the winter variations of the plant require being placed at 4°C for one to two months to accelerate the flowering process.


Keeping humidity uniform at around 50-60% is optimum for healthy plant growth. The relative humidity is a crucial influencer for the plant´s water needs. If the relative humidity is too high, above 90%, the most likely result is plant sterility. Some growers utilize low relative humidity, below 50% to achieve silique maturation.

Custom plant growth rooms

In most commercial growth facilities, it is easy to precisely control photoperiod, temperature, light intensity and often humidity too. Standard rooms can be equipped with additional temperature, ventilation, air conditioning, and lightning supplement growing conditions but are not as accurate as custom rooms. Greenhouses, on the other hand, can offer such services but are exposed to higher temperature deviations because of sunlight exposure. If the facility that is to be used for the growth of Arabidopsis was used with another species before, it would have to be cleaned to zero to avoid the use of pesticides or the loss of healthy plants because of infestation or pest.

Preservation of Arabidopsis seeds

The Arabidopsis small seeds rehydrate in a very rapid manner when they are exposed to any source of high humidity. If they happen to deteriorate, they lose vigor and if the process is not stopped, they lose the ability to germinate at all. The correlation between moisture, temperature and other unknown factors of cellular order determine the ´aging´ of the seeds. Seeds from Arabidopsis lines historically showed strength and viability for long periods of storage if the conditions are properly maintained.

When the seeds are exposed at the ambient relative humidity and at room temperature, they lose viability in approximately a span of two years. However, if the temperature is of 4°C to -20°C, the dried seeds can be stored for decades and remain as vigorous as the first day. The humidity of the 4°C controlled-room for storage should be somewhere between 20-30% to ensure seeds are not rehydrated. If the goal is to store the seeds for longer periods of time (more than five years), sub-zero temperature and a maximum of 20% relative humidity.

This is the latest and portable environmental chamber that FDM realized for specific customer needs. It’s a next generation device configured with multiple advanced features realized for testing the samples with varying weathering conditions. This small environmental chamber version (40C180V25) is a ‘PID (Proportional Integral Derivative)’ regulation device that can be used for ‘stability’ testing conditions. Alternatively, it can be equipped with programmable controller for cycling test; in this case we can manipulate the temperature and humidity making the testing much more dynamic. The specimen can be easily subjected to multiple environmental parameters with its advanced attributes.


We realized this machine according to the specifications provided by the customer. Also, they required us to realize the machine with smallest possible size, easy to transport to operate in multiple laboratories. This portable environmental chamber is configured for a specific customer who requested us to resolve a particular test condition and transportability. This environmental chamber consists of numerous benefits, which makes it a ‘stand out’ with respect to its ‘attributes’. We have the required skills to help them, and we did it!

This Environmental Chamber Consists of The Following Attributes:

  • Vast weathering range, with temperature ranging from -40°C to +180°C and humidity varying from 30% to 98% rh with a fluctuation range of less than 3.
  • Material used to manufacture this device is of very high quality. The exterior portion is made of ‘white coated galvanized steel’ and the interior is made of ‘AISI 304 stainless steel’.
  • Device is free insulated from CFC and HCFC.
  • Its interior consists of steel grid which are removable and height-adjustable as required.

It is basically a single-shelve environmental chamber, with its interior and exterior dimensions suitable to categorize it as ‘Portable’ as it weighs only 80kgs.

Exterior Dimensions Are [mm]:

  • Width – 444
  • Depth – 695
  • Height – 690

Interior Dimensions Are [mm]:

  • Width – 300
  • Depth – 235
  • Height – 295


check here the full technical sheet

With this portable environmental chamber you have much interior space available, it can be subjected to any specimen of volume up to 25 liters, which is quite impressive with respect to its attributes.

Electrical Parameters Configured in Portable environmental chamber:

  • Energy consumption at 37°C is 0.5[kWh/h]
  • Voltage capacity is 220/240V
  • Power Frequency of 50 Hz
  • Nominal Power of 1 kW and Nominal Voltage (Phase) of ‘1-‘
  • Unit Fuse of 16 A

Feature that makes this one of its kind are the safety measure taken into account to meet our customers request, it is immune to every unwanted mishaps that may occur during testing period. Those safety measures consist of:

  • Constant Monitoring Controller: This reduces the chance of any unfortunate events to minimal.
  • High Alarm & Security Feature: In this feature, the audio-visual alarm sets off whenever the temperature becomes too ‘HOT’ for the testing specimen.
  • Security Device with manual reset Class 1(DIN 12880).

To summarize: it is small and portable, can be operated in any given conditions because of its ‘dynamic’ features. In others words, a smart environmental chamber.


As demand for electronic components, especially semiconductors, continues to grow rapidly, one of the challenges the industry faces, is the time taken to test those components. Traditionally, Temperature Humidity Bias testing, THB for short, has been the solution, but with that taking 1000 hours to complete it represented a significant delay, and this is where HAST testing, Highly Accelerated Temperature and Humidity Stress Test, offers significant advantages.

Taking between 96 and 100 hours per test, and often even less, the HAST test provides significant time savings that can have significant impact on business, and so has quickly become the most dominant of the endurance test methods for semiconductor devices. While primarily connected with semiconductor testing, HAST testing is used on a variety of both hermetically sealed and unsealed compact electronic components to provide fast testing results for a variety of situations and needs.

HAST testing standards

Time Is not the only difference, THB testing holds 85°C/85% R.h. condition as the samples are subjected to bias loads, however this has become less relevant today due to advances in the materials used in packaging and passivation.

By contrast, HAST test conditions use a high temperature of at least 100°C and usually around 105°C along with high relative humidity of around 85% in combination with high atmospheric pressure of up to 4 atmospheres. There is also a saturated version of the HAST test that uses 121°C temperature and relative humidity of 100%. If components are tested with power on, it is usually the unsaturated version with 85%RH. These environmental parameters provide an accelerated method of component reliability testing that quickly finds concealed defects that could result in failure during long-term use.

There are several standards for HAST tests from the IEC, JESD, JIS and JEITA, all indicate different combinations of temperature and RH, and are used for different situations. The most common are:


  • IEC 60068-2-66 – used in non-hermetically sealed, compact electronic components
  • IEC 60749-4 – Mainly used for semiconductors
  • JESD020C – Reflow soldering
  • JESD22-A104DTemperature Cycling testing to cover component and solder interconnection testing
  • JESD22-B102E – Tests for accelerated moisture resistance, unbiased autoclave
  • JESD22-A108BHigh Temperature Operating Life (HTOL) test
  • JESD22-A102C – Used for accelerated humidity resistance testing of non-hermetically sealed semiconductor-based devices
  • JESD22-A110C – Used for non-hermetically sealed semiconductor-based devices while powered to evaluate reliability
  • JESD22-A118 – Evaluates the reliability of unpowered non-hermetically sealed semiconductor-based devices
  • JIS C60068-2-66 – For testing compact electronic components
  • JEITA ED-4701/100 Method 103Tests the durability of semiconductors that are stored or used within high temperature and humidity-based atmospheres


Hast testing in practice

The Hast highly accelerated stress test uses dedicated design test chambers that are rapidly being deployed to replace existing THB testing chambers that use wet bulb/dry bulb mechanisms to control humidity accurately and consistently. That constant temperature/humidity chamber under high pressure is key to delivering faster results in all conditions.

HAST testing is particularly useful during product changes where adjustments could potentially accelerate metal corrosion, with results being obtainable so much faster than alternatives and as a result having a significant impact on development times. HAST testing is the best option for testing for any kind of moisture driven corrosion, with its testing capabilities providing shock accelerated conditions that provide a true test of components.

The ability to provide full tests of all components, evaluating insulation deterioration, overall performance including the performance of plastic sealed components in a variety of conditions, including through a vibration test, the HAST approach delivers the true shock test that gives a real insight into overall performance of the product.



With its flexibility and intensity providing a variety of test results in a short space of time, HAST testing is well positioned for the modern production cycle. Crucially, the HAST testing process allows both saturated and unsaturated testing of components within the test cycle, and for plastic sealed components or others designed to be environmentally sealed, it provides a more streamlined, more effective outcome that enhances product development processes considerably.

Whatever testing standards are used, the ability to have tests completed in days, rather than months creates new opportunities for product development. By powering the agile testing process organizations are able to deliver faster responses to changing production needs, improving performance and delivering increased user satisfaction.

FDM at Achema Fair 2018

ACHEMA, takes place from 11th to 15th of June 2018 at the Messe Frankfurt (Germany). Focal Topics are: Chemical engineering, Materials and material processing, Pharmaceutical and Laboratory technology. The ACHEMA is largest world forum for chemical engineering and process industry, with more than 3.800 exhibitors which present the last innovations whole chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

This year the topics of ACHEMA will be Biotech for Chemistry, Flexible Production and the Chemical and Pharma Logistics.

Visit our booth at ACHEMA in hall 4.2 | booth K18 and get an insight in our wide range of products. Here you can find out more about our Stability Chambers, Ultra Low Freezers and you’ll can configure your custom chamber with FDM staff.


We’ll be pleasure invite you as guests at our stand!

Contact us for tickets or an appointment: Click here

FDM Achema Fair

How does an ultra low freezer work


Ultra low freezer: how does it work?

What is an Ultra freezer?

The Ultra freezer is one of the main tools used in research laboratories. The ULT freezer safeguards biological samples important for research being carried out in laboratories, by keeping them at very low temperatures. The operating temperature can range from -45° C to -89° C. Two versions are generally available: vertical cabinet or horizontal unit with access from above. The most common one is the vertical version, as laboratories are increasingly looking to save space to make it easier to move around. The internal storage volume of the low temperature freezer can also differ. It can start from an internal capacity of 200 litres up to a maximum capacity of 800 litres. The Ultra freezer has shelves on the inside where research samples are placed. Each shelf is closed by an internal door so as to maintain the temperature as uniform as possible on the shelves where no sample is removed or placed.

In order to keep the cold stored inside the cabinet, between the external wall and the internal one, there is a pollutant free polyurethane insulation with high insulation coefficient, which keeps the temperature stable for several hours. Another key element to maintaining the freezing status is the seal which is positioned around the entire perimeter of the main access door. The most efficient ones are silicone quadruple-step seals, which guarantee even greater temperature stability. The main entry door, also insulated with polyurethane, guarantees the highest degree of coldness and is blocked by an external closure generally fitted with a safety key. The most practical laboratory freezers are equipped with pivoting wheels at the bottom, in order to make it more practical to move within the laboratory. The most modern freezers are equipped with electronic PLC controllers, and a display that indicates freezing parameters. The entire control system is generally equipped with a back-up battery, which ensures the digital temperature display works even when there is a power failure.

ultra-freezer-specs ultra-low-temp-freezerchest-ult-freezer


Here you can see ultra low freezers for sale by FDM.

How does the refrigerator circuit of an ultra freezer work?

The refrigeration systems can be a single high-power compressor hermetically sealed or two cascade compressors. In this second case, there are two refrigeration circuits connected so that the evaporator of one cools the condenser of the other, facilitating the condensation of the compressed gas in the first circuit.

Air-cooled condensers are generally used in laboratory refrigeration systems, consisting of tubular batteries (copper or copper-aluminium) arranged to provide as much surface heat transfer as possible. In Ultra freezers, the circulation of the cooling air is forced by an engine driven fan and the expansion of the refrigerant fluids is obtained by capillary tubes.

Evaporation takes place through steel plate heat exchangers, located inside the chamber, or by means of a coil. In horizontal freezers, the copper or copper-aluminium coil evaporator is placed along the walls and bottom, while in vertical freezers it runs along the walls and at the top. The coil in the room eliminates the problems of efficiency in the heat exchange of freezers with the coil in the insulation cavity.


Coolant fluids used in the ultra low temperature freezers

Refrigerant fluids are selected from gaseous chemical compounds that can easily be liquefied and characterised by certain properties such as high critical temperature and low critical pressure, limited hazard and toxicity. They are indicated by the letter R followed by a number that refer to the molecule’s atoms. Each refrigerant system must be sealed and contain eco-friendly refrigerant HFC gas, free from CFC and HCFC as well as being non-explosive, non-flammable and non-toxic. The most efficient, environmentally friendly refrigerant fluids used in ultra freezers are typically R170, R23 and R290.


Which accessories can Ultra Freezer have?

The accessories generally supplied include: a CO2 and / or LN2 emergency system (both with independent power supply, probe and battery). In addition, in order to track room temperature, freezers are optionally equipped with a weekly charted temperature recorder, which has almost completely been replaced by digital ones. In line with current international standards, the recorder is compulsory for freezers at -45° C and -86° C for the storage of blood products. Other accessories include: various kinds of steel containers, drawers and racks for storage of cryoboxes, microplates, blood bags and test tubes designed for low and very low temperature storage. Handling goods inside the ultra freezers requires you to wear suitable protective headgear, leather gloves to protect your hands and overalls and smocks to protect your body.

Stability testing

Stability testing for validation of pharmaceutical products that meet ICH Q1A

The stability testing is a procedure for products validation that meet different standards. The stability chambers are the best equipments for stability studies, and application of use are: Pharmaceutical Products/Packaging; Medical Products/Packaging; Personal Care Products; Consumer Products and Research. This stability chamber can ricreate an ideal environment with temperature, humidity and illumination that are need for test. Temperature range is 0°C to +70°C, humidity range is 10% RH to ±90% RH and the illumination meet ICH Q1A pharmaceutical stability guidelines for different conditions. The pharmaceutical testing require an controller that install the CFR 21 software that meet FDA 21 CFR part 11 compliant. The stability testing is used also for accelated aging test, in order to speed up its aging process on the differents temperature, humidity and lighting conditions.

Read our page dedicated to material test chamber!

FDM Stability chambers provide a uniform, temperature/ humidity conditioned environment for worry-free operation with a control system that is easy to use and saves time. These chambers are ideal for ICH Q1A pharmaceutical stability testing, shelf life, package testing, accelerated aging, and more. The Constant Touch Screen Controller is compliance with FDA regulation 21 CFR part 11 for ERES (Electronic Records and Electronic Signatures). The controller is designed to simplify chamber operation including data logging, ethernet control and monitoring from any device, alarm notification via email and/or text message, data fi le backup, full system security, audit trail, digital signatures, power recovery options, and more.

Stability testing – strong points:

  • Temperature range 0°…+70°C
  • Temperature stability of ±0.1…0.5°C
  • Control relative Humidity 10% to 90% ±3%
  • Constant controller touch screen with CFR 21 software
  • Data logging with network connection
  • Inner lexan door with differents compartments
  • IQ/OQ certifi cations included
  • GSM Module (optional)
  • Best quality component for a long-term simulation
  • Made in Italy Design and Product

ICH Q1A stability testing

Stability testing structure:

  • External manufactured completely in white plastic coated galvanized steel and internal in stainless steel AISI 304
  • Polyurethane insulation CFC and HCFC free
  • Reversible doors fitted with self-closing hinges with stop opening beyond 90° and replaceable magnetic gaskets
  • Inner lexan door for different compartments
  • Inside with rounded corners
  • Plastic-coated steel grids removable and height adjustable
  • Adjustable steel feet

CFR-21 software

CFR-21 Controller:

  • Colour touchscreen display
  • Peer to peer communications
  • Modbus master/slave
  • Profi bus master
  • 10/100Mbps Ethernet
  • Continuous and sequential control
  • Multi-setpoint programmer
  • Batch control
  • Recipes
  • USB support
  • 21 CFR Part 11 auditor
  • Data logging
  • Open communications
  • Alarm management
  • Multi-language support
  • Heat treatment application editor


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manufacturer of climate chambers

FDM: The manufacturer of climate chambers Leader in Italy

The historic company born in Rome in 1949, is the manufacturer of climate chambers Leader in Italy. FDM stands out for its solid “know-how”, acquired over time, and the commitment and professionalism it provides every day for its customers. FDM offers a range of products useful to scientific and industrial laboratories. The company also has a team of engineers specializing in custom products. Many researchers and big industry rely on our team to make customized solutions ready to perform specific tests they require.

Production of climate chambers for different types of tests

Each scientific or industrial laboratory needs to test a material in different and certain conditions. FDM produces climatic chambers for different types of tests. The growth chambers, useful to accelerate the growth process of plants or insects. Climate chambers for stability testing, useful for performing pharmaceutical tests. Temperature chambers, useful for testing materials under specific temperature conditions. The climate chambers or environmental chambers, which are specific for testing at variable temperatures and humidity conditions. Additionally, FDM produces climatic chambers for materials test, that can be used to determine freeze/thaw resistance on different types of materials.

Made in Italy; Crucial to producing climate chambers

FDM is constantly evolving and looking to improve its products. FDM believes in quality, made in Italy is at the base of our products. The climatic chambers produced are equipped with the best components. They provide greater reliability in the test, and give long life to the climatic chambers. Our mission is to improve test quality in research laboratory by providing timely and reliable machinery for multiple applications.

FDM speaks your language. Being present in Europe and extra UE contries gives us the possibility to support you with your requirements, at you side. Our policy is looking for distributors that, with our training, become expert in FDM equipment and will help you with ordinary and extra ordinary after sale maintenance. We know price is not the only valuable thing that matters. FDM Service and Support is present in: Spain, France, Poland, UK, Germany Benelux, Estonia, Switzerland, Greece, Serbia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Korea. Isn’t it enough? Discover our Remote Support by our Engeeering team.

Climatic hydraulic press

climatic hydraulic press

Climatic hydraulic press; Climatic module paired with any press

If you have a hydraulic press, and you need to do test at controlled temperatures and humidity, FDM has already the solution for you. We’ve put ourselves to the test once again, designing a unique machine and that allows the coupling with your current press.

The climatic chamber can be coupled and de-coupled to the press in a simple and fast way . Thanks to the installation of the chamber on rails. In this way, it will be enough to pull out the chamber’s axes and slide backwards the climatic structure. The project was born with the necessity of a customer, who was already in possession of a hydraulic press and wondered us if it was possible to create a climate coupled with it.  So we managed to meet the customer’s economic / qualitative needs by creating a custom machine for unique and efficient testing.


Main features of climatic hydraulic press are:

Temperature range: -30/+80°C

Temperature changes in time: ±0.1…0.5°C

Max Cooling / Heating Speed: +5/-5 °C/min


Other features of climatic hydraulic press:

Temperature and humidity probe are located close the Test sample

RS485 interface port

External elettronic controller with programmer

Controlled Humidity to avoid condensation

External glass door with inner lighting to the climatic

Internal and external structure completely in stainless steel AISI 304

Cable holes both wall sides.

The climatic hydraulic press, can work both with manual and automatic mode through the software already installed on the press with RS485 interface and external electronic controller.


Accelerated aging test


accelerated aging test

Manufacturer of accelerated aging chamber

Studying the effects of time over a product or material has always been quintessential for companies wishing to; determine and analyse the aging process on their products. FDM experts have come together to design an accelerated aging chamber which achieves just this; making sure your product hits the market having withstood all tests, including the test of time.

Offering a range of customisable settings, the FDM High Accelerated aging test puts your material which could be components from a variety of industries under time duress. Watch accelerated aging and test your product. This without having to spend a significant amount of time as was done in the past. With this accelerated corrosion test chamber, you can now run an accelerated weathering tester; which will enable you to witness the effects of time, weathering and corrosion on your product. Few other brands understand the importance of time as F.lli Della Marca do. We recognise how every second is a precious asset in your labs and we work hard to make aging testing sustainable for your finances and resources.

Choose FDM for your highly accelerated stress tests. With our powerful chambers you can now launch durable products your customers will appreciate more as time goes by.

Our Climatic chamber for Accelerated aging, is designed for make best environment for your material samples.

Accelerated aging chamber